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After plotting the ages and initial Nd ratios of terrestrial igneous rocks on a Nd evolution vs.time diagram, De Paolo and Wasserburg determined that Archean rocks had initial Nd isotope ratios very similar to that defined by the CHUR evolution line.Despite the good fit of Archean plutons to the CHUR Nd isotope evolution line, De Paolo and Wasserburg (1976) observed that the majority of young oceanic volcanics (Mid Ocean Ridge basalts and Island Arc basalts) lay 7 to 12 ɛ units above the CHUR line (see figure).This led to the realization that Archaen continental igneous rocks that plotted within the error of the CHUR line could instead lie on a depleted-mantle evolution line characterized by increasing Sm/Nd and Nd ratios over time.

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Then the paleontologists use the geologists' dates as evidence for the age of the fossils! The relative order of the strata was first determined by the principles of stratification. Beagle, a very strong Bible believer, made it a point to have a copy of Lyell's book for the ship's library.Being ancient, the C-14 content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in "zeroing" laboratory instruments. Hovind would take the trouble to do a little reading from something other than creationist publications he would not make such an outrageous statement.It's just one of the tricks that have been used to make the work a little more precise. I believe he has confused the use of index fossils with evolution.Fractional crystallisation of felsic minerals changes the Sm/Nd ratio of the resultant materials.This, in turn, influences the The concentration of Sm and Nd in silicate minerals increase with the order in which they crystallise from a magma according to Bowen's reaction series.

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